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Automotive Electronics Heralding a New Era of Evolution in Two Wheelers

Avinash KaleWorld is making the new and smart forms of mobility. Semiconductors are essential to realize the automotive megatrends. These megatrends include Electro-mobility, Connectivity, Security, and Automated driving. Around 90% of all automotive innovations depends on Microelectronics or Semiconductors. Being the Largest Automotive Semiconductor supplier in the world, Infineon Technologies has always been at the fore front in innovating these solutions for the world. Our core beliefs – Zero CO2 becomes real, A driver becomes passenger, A car becomes a smarter car – reflects these automotive megatrends

India moves on two-wheeler, a well-known fact and also reflected from production of nearly 25 million vehicles in the year 2019. A quick look at India’s automotive industry reveals that almost 80% of the vehicles running on Indian roads are two wheelers. Infineon has been spearheading the adoption of these megatrends in India through partnership with various players in the entire two-wheeler ecosystem.

The need for green energy and clean mobility is driving a shift in focus towards electric two wheelers. This has accentuated the need to adopt sophisticated electronic system solutions that are vital for motor controller and battery management in an electric vehicle. As consumer requirements evolve, more and more consumers have been demanding for greater intelligence in automobiles. In addition, the emission and safety regulations, as well user experience and comfort features are driving the electronic content.

Two wheelers are right in the middle of this transformation. The developments in microelectronics, has led to increase in connectivity, sensors, displays and lighting applications in a two-wheeler. Further the need for safe and secure mobility has meant system designers to increasingly depend upon Automotive Electronics that are designed to match the performance, cost, and advanced architecture of an automotive system.

Motor Controller

An electric motor, replacing the conventional combustion engine in ICE vehicles, is the driving force behind the wheels for electric vehicles. Most of today’s electric 2/3 wheelers use BLDC (Brushless DC) or PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) motors. The electric motor and it’s controller are tightly coupled and at the centre-stage of electric 2/3 wheelers or for that matter any electric vehicle. The overall performance and efficiency of motor and it’s controller are critical parameters for any electric vehicle.

The FOC/SVPWM (Field Oriented Control/Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation) is the most efficient and popular driving technic for BLDC/PMSM motors, hence most of the motor controllers implements the same. Infineon’s AURIX and Traveo-II MCUs with their high performance, multicore architecture, high resolution TCPWM (Timer Counter Pulse Width Modulation) modules, performant/multiple ADCs, and peripheral interconnectivity, are ideally suited for motor control applications. With Traveo-II MCUs, users can easily achieve ASIL-B compliance at system level, while AURIX family is qualified for the highest safety (ASIL-D).

Infineon offers complete product-to-system approach, reference solutions and the entire ecosystem for motor controllers. Besides MCU, ASIL-C/D compliant gate driver, wide range of MOSFETs, accurate magnetic rotor position sensor, current sensors, DC-DCs, PMIC (Power Management ICs), communication (CAN/LIN/Flexray) transceivers, forms the part of entire motor controller system.

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Figure 1- Motor Controller (48-72V, up to 10kW) Reference Solution

Customers can jump start their development using readily available reference hardware, software (low level drivers, E-Motor Library, example codes, etc.), documentation (HW/ SW User Manuals, Application Notes, etc.) and the entire ecosystem (tool-chain, IDE, compilers, debuggers, various evaluation boards, etc.).

Battery Management System (BMS)

Battery Pack is the ultimate source of energy for any electric vehicle. An electric 2/3 wheelers are powered by 48V to 72V lithium-ion battery packs today. The energy density, and durability of battery pack as well the efficient utilization of this battery energy decides the performance, and range of the vehicle. Hence, it’s essential to monitor the vital parameters of battery pack all the time. These parameters typically include Voltage, Temperature, State of Health (SOH), State of Charge (SOC), State of Power (SOP), etc. A reliable BMS is responsible for the efficiency, longevity, and safety of Lithium-ion batteries. As battery packs are susceptible to certain risks such as under/ over-voltage, deep discharge, mechanical stress, over-heating, unstable chemical stage, thermal runaway, a BMS is critical in detecting these events quickly and mitigating the potential hazardous situation, if not, alerting the driver or passengers in time. So, BMS is a safety critical application. The educated customers demand for automotive quality and safety (ASILC/D) compliance.

Infineon’s BMS family is designed for automotive quality, highest safety (ASIL-C/D), and engineered for systems that consists of 4 to 200 cells in series comprehending voltages between 12V and 800V. A single BMS SoC/AFE (TLE9012) can monitor up to 12 batteries/cells with 12 dedicated 16-bit SDADCs thereby supporting very fast and fully synchronous measurements. An additional 13th 16-bit SDADC is targeted for Pack Voltage and temperature measurements. The in-built Stress Sensor compensates for all stresses and guarantees the End of Life (EOL) accuracy for voltage measurements. Safety mechanisms consists of Analog Comparators for redundant OV/UV check, Open wire detection, Leakage detection and comprehensive diagnostic features. The BMS SoCs/AFEs (TLE9012s) communicates over iso-UART, a robust and patented communication interface. The iso-UART transceiver (TLE9015) interfaces the AFEs in daisy chain to the Host Microcontroller in a typical high voltage BMS. TLE9015 supports the ring topology with it’s dual iso-UART channels and complete isolation between the high voltage and low voltage system, ensuring a cost optimized robust system solution. In low voltage BMS, TLE9012 can directly communicate with the Host Microcontroller over UART without the need of TLE9015.

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Figure 2- Battery Management System Reference Solution

Infineon provides complete system solution for battery management system. Customers can minimize their time-tomarket by leveraging on the scalable and ASIL-C/D ready reference design. This design is for monitoring and balancing of 4-24 cells, that is suitable for 48-72V BMS application. A solid-state switch is used for battery disconnect which gives faster turn off & robustness compared to contactors and relays. In addition, CAN/BLE/NFC connectivity, Memories for data logging, Pressure sensor for thermal runaway, and PMIC as safety supply adds the value, differentiation and flexibility in two-wheeler BMS system.

Connectivity with Enhanced Security

Modern electronics have become more connected. Our phones, computers and electronic devices are constantly communicating and upgrading through the cloud. Obviously, consumers are now expecting their vehicles to have latest connectivity and upgradability features. Infineon’s Traveo-II family of MCUs helps connect the vehicle seamlessly and offers the feature to upgrade the firmware at any time.

Infineon’s Traveo-II offers wide performance scalability offering single ARM Cortex M4 at 80Mhz to as high as dual ARM Cortex M7 at 350Mhz each. The dual bank flash provides the facility to store both the updated image and rollback image with read while write operation. This enables true Firmware-OverThe-Air (FOTA) update, with no interruption of service and roll back in case of failure. While all derivatives come with the latest CAN-FD, LIN, UART, SPI connectivity options, the higher derivatives also support 1 Gbit Ethernet, Flexray, I2S/ TDM interface and serial memory interface with integrated on-the-fly AES encryption.

Being connected also means being exposed to security risks. Each of Traveo-II MCUs offers Hardware Security Module (HSM) that integrates an additional dedicated ARM Cortex M0+ core and the latest hardware encryption accelerators like AES 128/192/256-bit, SHA 1/2/3, RSA and ECC, PRNG, TRNG. The M0+ core boots from ROM while M4/M7 are kept in reset, enabling secure boot and ROM code provides root-of-trust.

Traveo-II Body MCUs are designed for typical body control applications that demand low power consumption and at the same time offer superior safety up to level ASIL B. Customers can start their development using the free Software Development Library (SDL) with various offerings of evaluation boards, a wide range of compiler and debugger tools, MCAL & other quality-controlled software. With 7 packages available from as small as 64-LQFP, Traveo-II is not only best suited for two-wheeler body control applications but also can be used to scale up to a Telematics Control Unit (TCU) or a Vehicle Control Unit (VCU) with higher pin count and flash memory.

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Figure 3 – Traveo-II Body MCU Family Scalability

Vehicle User Experience with Advanced Graphics

The consumer desire to view vehicle information on big screens has meant increased adoption of the Thin Film Transistor (TFT) LCDs including also the broad range of touch screen displays from sizes of anywhere between 4 to 7 inches. Using touch screen display, OEMs are able to provide two-wheeler consumers with “smartphone-like” graphical interfaces, seamless navigation, infotainment and at the same time also promising third-party app stores for a broad range of services.

The Traveo-II Cluster MCUs helps create a low-cost state of the art vehicle user experience. It offers scalability for graphics with multiple variants i.e. from a small 3-inch graphics screen with QVGA resolution to as high as an 8-inch TFT with full HD resolution. It reduces memory footprint with innovative on-the-fly and line-based graphics, thereby reducing costs. The featurerich graphics engine renders 2.5D high resolution graphics at 720p with the help of internal VRAM and without the need of external memory. It can perform perspective correction of simple 3D effects. In the highest feature derivative, the sophisticated display controller supports arbitrary warping for HUDs, multiple displays, video capture and motion picture using a JPEG decoder. Flexible memory interface supports high speed serial memories like NOR Flash and RAM. Ethernet connectivity and sound generation along with audio interface can further enhance the user’s vehicle experience to next level with dynamic content.

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Figure 4 – Infineon’s system solution approach for a two-wheeler cluster

Customers can begin development using the same software, tools and ecosystem that are available for Traveo-II Body MCUs. Further they can accelerate their graphics development by leveraging the expertise of Infineon certified vendors who utilize hardware capabilities of our MCU in their HMI tool in the best possible way.

Conclusion

Advanced automotive electronics offers tangible benefits that helps manufacturers to rapidly develop these solutions that hide design complexity, offering a better riding experience. Infineon Technologies AG is a leading player and pioneer in automotive electronics. Our 40 years of dedicated experience, clear strategic focus on automotive applications, safety, zerodefect quality standards, system solution approach, premium support, and our ability to continually innovate this market has meant enduring success for our customers. Indian twowheeler industry landscape is witnessing a huge technological transformation today and Infineon is partnering with the industry in this journey heralding a new era of technology evolution.

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