The automotive industry thrived on two popular pillars of combustion engines that defined the shape and characteristics of every vehicle to this day. That era of petrol and diesel types of powertrains is now slowly coming towards its end game as the evolution of electric vehicles has started spreading across the market.
The never-ending price hike in petrol and diesel as well as their tendency to emit toxic and greenhouse gases in today’s already eroding environment has given them the label of exhaustive resources that are soon to get replaced.
The introduction of electric vehicles or EVs in the automotive market has started a chain reaction in the depleting popularity of petrol and diesel internal combustion engines as they face some challenges trying to steal the crown.
We have seen many different types of engines in the past few years but many of them rely solely on fossil fuels to operate which crossed them out from the prospective list of upcoming powertrains.
As the automotive market’s two-pronged push toward higher fuel efficiency and lower carbon dioxide emissions rose higher, Powertrain Technologies for EVs have emerged as the panacea for every technical challenge encountered so far in providing greater fuel efficiency as well as greener technology.
Despite all these claims of Powertrain Technologies for EVs being the ultimate solution, we have to explore the concept as well as the component list of EV Powertrains to acquaint ourselves with this upcoming technology.
EV Powertrain= EV + Powertrain
As the name suggests, let’s separate these words to get the common idea of what Powertrain Technologies for EVs exactly stand for.
As specified with the name given, a powertrain provides power to a vehicle. The powertrain can be defined as the set of components required to generate power that will help in moving a vehicle while transferring the generated power to its wheels.
Electric Vehicle (EV)
An electric vehicle, on the other hand, can be simply defined as a vehicle that works on electricity as its source of fuel instead of petrol or diesel.
Difference between Powertrain Technologies for EVs and ICE Vehicles
To grasp the concept of Powertrain Technologies for EVs better, let’s compare it with a regular powertrain that was popular in the industry till now.
Main Components of ICE Vehicle Powertrain
A typical ICE vehicle comprises hundreds of moving parts with their main components being an Engine, Transmission and Driveshaft. Normally, power is generated inside the engine and is then transmitted to its driveshaft. Many other parts of this type of powertrain include axels, differentials, engine cooling systems, etc.
Main Components of EV Powertrain
Unlike an ICE Vehicle powertrain, Powertrain Technologies for EVs possesses far fewer components in its stride. Some of its main components include,
Like any other motor, it converts electric energy into kinetic energy to move the wheels. Its main benefit lies in the fact that the noise and the vibration we typically associate with cars are considerably minimized.
A reducer is a type of transmission that serves to convey motor’s power to its wheel.
Battery Management System (BMS)
BMS helps in managing the battery’s many cells to operate like a single entity.
On-board Charger (OBC)
OBC’s main task is to convert AC from portable chargers used on home outlets into DC.
Electric Power Control Unit (EPCU)
EPCU basically control the flow of the electric power in the vehicle while integrating all devices. It is typically comprised of an inverter, Low voltage DC-DC Converter (LDC), and Vehicle Control Unit (VCU).
Like any other battery, an EV battery stores electrical energy and can be compared to a fuel tank in an internal combustion engine.
Powertrain Technologies for EVs as Sustainable Substitute
Moving towards a sustainable approach in every sphere of our lives, automakers, as well as consumers, the Powertrain Technologies for EVs, are steadily rising its ranks in the automobiles industry.
As several regulatory compliances are getting enacted all across the globe, along with many innovative technology improvements rolled out in favor of EVs, consumers have shown their preference and interest in EVs and Powertrain Technologies for EVs has also garnered much attention.
With EVs becoming ever-present in every part of the world, a varied number of innovative solutions will be required to manufacture Powertrain Technologies for EVs and its components efficiently.
And though, Powertrain Technologies for EVs are still not fully advanced as their previous counterparts, new technological possibilities and tightening environmental requirements are the necessity to scale this emerging sector of the powertrain industry.