The effects of climate change and gas prices estimated to increase further in the upcoming months are fueling the increased demand for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). There have gradually been more EV models on the market each year, giving drivers more purchasing options.
2022 is a dynamic year for EVs and their ever-increasing market growth and market share. However, it is still crucial to consider some of the intrinsic characteristics and challenges associated not only with EVs but also with EV charging stations. Below we will review more in detail how power supplies can affect the performance of an EV charging station.
More about EV Charging Stations
EV charging stations are facing unprecedented pressure to provide continuous, reliable power for recharging even more EVs. By 2025, it is expected that 1 in 5 new cars sold worldwide will be electric, reaching up to 2 in 5 new cars by 2030. According to the FAME India scheme, the hybrid and electric vehicle industry has grown globally, especially in India. At the same time, the global EV charging stations industry is facing unprecedented pressure to manufacture more EV charges capable of providing continuous, reliable power for charging even more EVs.
First and foremost, not all EV charging stations are made equal, as they can be divided into AC and DC charging stations. AC EV charging stations provide AC power to the EV, and then the onboard charger on the EV will convert AC to DC for powering its battery. With DC charging stations, a DC charger provides DC power to the EV battery directly.
There are also mainly three types of EV charging stations: AC level 1, AC level 2, and DCFC (DC fast charger). AC Level 1 Chargers represent the cheapest and simplest option with the smallest size. AC Level 2 Chargers constitute the most common and widespread type. DCFC accounts for the most expansive and complex charger type, which also implicates the highest power demands. EV charging stations can also be divided according to four shapes: AC portable charger, wall mount charger, charging pile, and DC fast charger.
AC/DC power supply is the core of the power system. While each type of EV charger has a series of intrinsic characteristics to consider, there are several common factors to consider when selecting AC/DC power supplies to design the electric circuit of an EV charging station. First of all, it is important to consider the compatibility of the EV charger with the global mainstream grid voltages. Another crucial aspect is voltage fluctuation which can impact a power supply’s lifespan and performance when the grid voltage is not as stable as expected. So the first consideration to consider includes assessing whether the power supply can provide an ultra-wide input voltage range.
Besides appraising some of the factors mentioned above, electrical engineers should also select power supplies for EV charging stations in accordance with a series of features. From higher efficiency to high reliability, the ideal power module for this application should also be highly resistant, even better if it is moisture-proof and anti-corrosive. This way, it is possible to guarantee the longevity and reliable performance of power supplies for EV charging stations.
Electrical engineers should also not underestimate the effects of temperature changes and harsh weather conditions, considering that EV charging stations are usually installed outdoors. In summer, the outdoor temperature of some areas may exceed 40℃, and the internal temperature of the charger may exceed 80℃. Therefore, it is required to select power supplies that can work under a wide temperature range.
Last but not least, EMC performance (including EMI, EMS, and surge) are other key factors worth considering. In particular, lightning may cause a surge in the power grid as high as tens of kilovolts. Despite several types of protections, the surge to the AC/DC may still be up to ± 1kV or ± 2KV. For this reason, the AC/DC power supply will be damaged if it can not withstand the surge.
MORNSUN’s Power Supply Solutions for EV Charging Stations
Electrical engineers should also pay special attention to the power solutions provider they appoint for their electric circuit design projects. For instance, MORNSUN has over 23 years of experience in the power supply industry, offering a wide range of power modules for various industries.
Among the many applications of the MORNSUN AC/DC Power Supplies and DC/DC Converters, EV charging stations represent one prominent example. MORNSUN’s R&D engineers have designed a series of solutions for EV charging stations, including three types of power supplies consisting respectively of AC Level 1, AC Level 2, and DCFC. EV charging systems’ designers can select one or more of our advanced and cost-efficient components, spacing from isolation converters and enclosed power supplies to RS485/CAN transceivers and more.
For AC Level 1 type EV charging equipment, such as a charging box, we recommend MORNSUN’s compact open frame AC/DC Power Supplies LS-R3 series, which are rated from 1W to 15W. This series has a universal wide input voltage of 85-305VAC coupled with a wide operating temperature range of -40℃~+85℃, ultra-compact size (e.g: LS03-13BxxR3 is 26.4*12.58*12mm) and flexible layout, making it an ideal solution for various applications with limited space.
For AC Level 2 type EV charging equipment, such as a charging pile, we recommend MORNSUN’s Encapsulated AC/DC Power Supplies LD-R2 Series, which is rated from 3W to 90W, features a universal wide input voltage of 85-305VAC and a wide operating temperature range of -40℃~+85℃. These AC/DC power supplies are available for OVC III applications with reinforced isolation as high as 4.2kVac, offering a compact size with dimensions as low as 1 x 1 inch.
Last but not least, for DCFC, we recommend MORNSUN’s Enclosed AC/DC Power Supplies LM/LMF Series, rated from 15W to 1500W, features a universal wide input voltage of 85-305VAC coupled with a wide operating temperature range of -30℃ to +75℃. With an efficiency of up to 92%, this AC/DC power supply series is ideal for charging piles, especially for DCFC EV charging stations. Besides, MORNSUN provides the DC/DC Power Supply QA Series with positive and negative outputs and is specially designed for SiC MOSFETs and IGBTs driver. QA series features high isolation voltage up to 5K VAC, high CMTI, ultra-low isolation capacitance, and ultra-wide operating temperature range, suitable for applications such as DC charging stations.