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LEDs emitting at 500-600 nm for reasons that are not yet completely understood, despite the practical importance of this issue.



There is much to like about solid-state lighting: It trims global energy consumption, opens new lighting applications, and gives us a long-lasting light bulb that hits full brightness in an instant. However, penetration of this technology is not as fast as we would like, with adoption held back by high prices and an insufficient level of superiority over incumbent sources.

Many of the LED bulbs that are on sale today have at their heart a blue-emitting chip coated with one of more phosphors emitting at longer wavelengths. White light stems from colour-mixing, which can also be produced by combining either the output of blue, green and red LEDs; or the emission of a quartet of blue, green, amber and red devices. Whichever approach is taken, the designers of white-light sources have to make two key decisions: how many, and what kind of individual emitters should be chosen to produce white light with desired properties; and what are the requirements for characteristics of the individual emitters.  Getting the right answers demands careful optimization of light mixing, because it is not just a matter of optimizing the total emission spectrum produced by all the emitters – it also requires maximising the efficiency of electricity-to-light conversion of each individual device.

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